Digital Divides on Internet

But the problem is not placed alone in the comparisons of the countries of the third world: a lot often the famous difference also only between adjacent regions all’ inside of a same nation. In the june the 2000 European Union has approved of the Action plan ” eEurope 2002″ ; in the same month the Italian government has launched the Action plan of Italy.
In documents introduced from our country and received in ” eEurope 2002″ they are demanded political for the increase of the regions behind schedule and an extraordinary engagement for the reduction of the digital divides between rich and poor countries.
Both documents place the valorization of happen them human, and in particular of the young people, to the center of the concrete actions that must be pursued from the UE and the single States. The previewed lines of action in the European Plan are finalized to the attainment of three priority objectives: to realize a more economic access, sure express and to Internet; to invest in the human resources and the formation, being favored the participation of all to the economy based on the acquaintance.
I use to promote it of Internet, also in Public Administration and the services, accelerating the e-commerce and developing contained it types them for the total nets. In Ireland beyond 200milioni of euro of financings publics they have been rendered available in order to finance plans thesis to supply systems of advanced communication or infrastructures of e-commerce. In Sweden they have been invested 5,8 billions of crowns in order to develop regional or local logons in rural areas and for the development of nets to wide band.
In Portugal in order to supply the domestic access to Internet more of the half of the population offers come fiscal incentives for the purchase of PC, while the access to Internet to lowland speed free or is supplied to a symbolic price, and the access to wide band are to a good level of development. In France they have been realized beyond 7000 points of free access to Internet.

World Wide Web (Internet)

The World Wide Web (name of English origin), in acronym WWW, more often abbreviated in Web,  also known like Great World-wide Ragnatela,  is a service of Internet consisting in with immensest of multimediali contents and accessible services to all or to a selected part of the customers of Internet. Main characteristic of the Web is that its contents are between they connected (forming a hypertext, through the so-called link, connections).

And its services can be made available from the same customers of Internet. Regarding the contents therefore, being Internet a net of public access computer, the Web possesses the extraordinary peculiarity to offer to anyone the possibility to become publisher and, with a extremely meager expense, to catch up the immensest public potentially distributed all over the world.

The Web has initial state implemented from Tim Berners-Lee while she was investigator to the CERN, on the base of ideas of the same Berners-Lee and of a its colleague, Robert Cailliau, and today the standards on which it is based, in continuous evolution, are maintained from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The birth of the Web laughed them to 6 August 1991, day in which Berners-Lee the first site put on-linens on Internet Web.

Initially used only from the scientific community, the 30 you open them 1993 the CERN decides to render the technology to the base of the Web public. To such decision it makes followed immediate and a wide one happening of the Web in virtue of the offered possibility anyone to become publisher, of its efficiency and, not last, of its semplicità. With the happened one of the Web it has beginning still today the esponenziale and unstoppable increase of Internet in existence, let alone the so-called one ” it was of the Web”.

Neutrality of the Net (Internet)

Network neutrality (or net neutrality, Internet neutrality or NN, in Italian neutrality of the net) are un’ television expression that ago reference to a design principle/use applied to the residential nets to wide band that they supply approached to Internet, services telephones to us and transmissions. The varied exact definition but comes thought ” neutrale” from the majority of the supporters of this principle a net to wide band that is lacking in arbitrary restrictions on the connected devices and on the way in which they operate.

It can be argued that practically no net is completely neutral, for which the neutrality represents an ideal condition towards which operating and the nets can stretch. The term has been coined nell’ within of the European laws on the telecommunicationses more or less in the 2003 and has been then imported in the United States, when the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) has begun to consider the informative reclassification of the residential DSL like Information Service, services, thus like era for the logons to Internet based on cable.

The supporters of the net neutrality did not oppose themselves to a homogenous regulation but they thought thus that both these services had to be dealt like Telecommunications Service that is like services of telecommunicationses, as I telephone and the other services typically managed from telephone societies. For being able to compete with the service ” Triple play” (that is Internet, television, I telephone) of the companies that manage the logons via cable, the telecommunication companies have proposed the division of the television and telephone traffic from that Internet.

Since this practical one is common on the nets via cable, the critics us of the net neutrality support that to forbid it on nets DSL it is arbitrary and unjust. Consequently, the ” net neutrality” it has been accused of being ” a solution in tries of a problema” and to eliminate the incentives all’ modernization of the nets and to the launch of Internet services of new generation. Bob Kahn, the inventive head physician of Internet, supports that net neutrality or a slogan dogmatic that the experimentation and the improvements in the heart of Internet bloccherebbe.

The point of view of Kahn is shared from the majority of the net engineers senior, with l’ important of Vint Cerf, currently managing exception of Google. In any case, the activists fear that the telecommunication companies can use this power in order to discriminate between the several types of traffic, being introduced unjust taxes and tolls for the producers of contents, if in particular concurrent. Their worry is that the lacked payment can carry to a poor or completely absent service that renders impossible to approach to some sites web or some services or l’ use of some applications.

At least one of the more important society than American telecommunicationses has supported this idea. Those who proposes the neutrality supports that the telecom they try to impose the service model ” to livelli” more for the purpose than to earn more from their control on the cables that give the contents. Others have expressed their idea that the net neutrality or particularly important like means in order to maintain own freedoms, as a not neutral net could decide to render inaccessible information or judged services inadequate.

Bob Kahn says to fear that Internet can be fragmented and would want to see mechanisms at the level of policy that they prevent the managers of nets dall’ to exclude the customers from sure services. At last a third group finds that the terms of both the parts are susceptible of doubt. If the neutrality of the net comes to lack, it could be found to us to choose provider of access to Internet on the base of the contents (sites web, services VoIP etc) that they can be used with those provider: the provider some contents of the web could supply the service of logon to Internet favoring respect to others.

It would be un’ architecture of net based on the ” favoritismi” , planned so that some services can have advantages respect to others, that it would allow the creation of a new market between contained suppliers of for the web and Internet Service Provider.

The neutrality of the net recently is threatened from the American legislators who, pushes from the demands for large provider, are estimating l’ introduction of that which it comes called Internet to 2 speeds, that is a reform to the legislation on the telecommunicationses; such reform, seppur happened in the USA, would interest all the globe, date the international nature of Internet. Schierati in favor of the reform of discouragement of the neutrality criterion detaches AT& T, world-wide giant of the telecommunicationses, and the party of the ISP formed from Verizon, BellSouth and Comcast.

Languages of Internet

The used language more in Internet is sure l’ English. L’ English is spoken sure from more than half billion than persons like madrelingua or second language and is comprised, even if with various levels, from at least an other average billion. All these persons, contribute to develop Internet in English. The Mandarin Chinese is the language more speech to the world (beyond a billion) and is the second language of Internet.

The Chinese population online is growing remarkablly and it expects to us that it will in a near future have a remarkable impact on Internet. To notice the insufficient presence of the language hindi, one of the languages more speeches to the world, being the national language dell’ India, according to polulated country more of the world. This has had or to the sparsity of access to Internet of the majority of the Indiana population, or to the preference nell’ use dell’ English from those which they have approached to Internet.

However also the Indiana population online is growing remarkablly and it expects to us that it will in a near future have a remarkable impact on Internet. Draft of esteem to september 2004 of the population online uniform for language.

Broadband Wireless Access Internet

With Broadband Wireless Access Internet (BWA; in English, literally ” access without threads to wide band”) they indicate a family of technologies whose scope is that one to supply approached Internet to high speed and wireless on great areas. The term broadband (wide band) must second agree the definition supplied from the standard IEEE 802,16-2004, that it implies a advanced bandwidth to 1 MHz that supports a traffic given dell’ order of 1.5 Mbps.

These dimensionings render comparable l’ efficiency of the BWA to that one dell’ access to wide band via fixed net, as an example through ADSL. A provider that it supplies approached Internet through technologies BWA it comes said WISP. The majority of the active WISP in the world uses repeaters radius that make available mark them till approximately 50 km of distance.

The used technologies in order to supply the BWA include LMDS, MMDS and WiMAX; quest’ last it is diffused in Europe, while it has greater difficulties to penetrate in the American market. According to the employed technologies, l’ access to Internet can demand l’ installation of an antenna or simply l’ use of I telephone cellular connected to the computer.

Akses Internet

Akses  Internet is a net of world-wide access computer public currently representative also one of the main mass media of mass. Anyone in fact decides of an opportune computer and the software, leaning itself to a service Akses  Internet provider that an access to Akses  Internet supplies it through a line of dedicated telecommunication (ADSL, HDSL, VDSL, GPRS, HSDPA, etc) or one telephone line of General Telephone Net (POTS, ISDN, GSM, UMTS, etc), can approach Akses  Internet and use its services.

This is rendered possible from a suite of protocols of called net ” TCP/IP” from the name of the two main ones, the TCP and l’ IP, the ” lingua” municipality with which the computer of Akses  Internet hardware and software are interconnected and communicated independently between they from their architecture. Constituted from some hundreds of million computers connected between they with the most varied average trasmissivi, Akses  Internet is also the greatest net than currently existing computer, reason for which is defined ” net of the reti” or ” net globale” connecting between they nets LAN, WAN and MAN.

As telecommunication net (a computer net is a sottotipo for communication given of a net of telecommunicationses) like spread is second only to General the Telephone Net, anch’ it of world-wide spread and to public access, but comprising the planet in way still more ‘ capillare’ of Akses  Internet. Quest’ last it widely shares the telephone net for l’ access of its customers and is destined, in a future not too much far away with the improvement of the VoIP technology, to supplant it in itself inglobandola as based on the most efficient technique of the package commutation.

Akses  Internet offers the most varied services, main of which they are the World Wide Web and the e-mail, and is used for the disparate communications more: private and public, working and recreational, scientific and it trades them. Its customers, in constant increase, the 2008 have caught up quota 1,5 billions and, seen l’ he puts into effect them increase rhythm, previews that they will salt to 2,2 billions in 2013.  The first publication in which a net of world-wide public access computer is teorizza is On-linens man computer communication dell’ August 1962, scientific publication of the Americans Joseph C.R. Licklider and Welden and. Clark.

In the publication Licklider and Clark, investigators of the Institute Massachusetts of Technology, gives also a name to the net from they teorizzata: ” Intergalactic Network” Computer;. But before that all this becomes a truth is necessary to attend till 1991 when the government of the United States d’ America emanates the High performance computing act, the law with which for the first time comes previewed the possibility to widen, to work dell’ private initiative and with exploitation purpose trades them, an Akses  Internet till that moment net of world-wide computer of property be them and destined to the scientific world.

Exploitation trades them that quickly it comes in existence put also from the other Countries. In 1993 the CERN, l’ European institution where the World Wide Web is born, decides to render the technology to the base of the implementabile World Wide Web public so that or liberations from anyone. To this decision it makes followed an immediate one and wide happening of the World Wide Web in reason of the offered functionalities, of its efficiency and, not last, of its facility of I use.

From such happening has beginning the esponenziale increase of Akses  Internet that in least years will carry the net of the nets to change in order always the human society rivoluzionando the way to relazionarsi of the persons like that one to work so much that in the 1998 it will be succeeded in to speak about ” new economia”.

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